these. This part’s pretty easy. But I decided to go all out (well, at least within a < $100 budget) and buy three more Kingston SSDs to test them in the same RAID configurations: And it was a little surprising—since the Raspberry Pi's PCI Express 1x 2.0 lane only offers around 5 Gbps theoretical bandwidth, the maximum real-world throughput you could get no matter how many SSDs you add is around 330 MB/sec. Then enter ‘p’ (for primary partition). So there are other IO pressures that the Pi reaches that make RAID for SATA SSDs less of a performance option than for spinning hard drives. Unfortunately, after the upgrade, I discovered that iperf benchmark had very little to do with the actual practical performance. (It's single client, so synchronization primitives are less important. Installing Ubuntu Server. I will also release a new instructable on this topic soon with improved casing and software. I had and NAS together so the intent is to set up the NAS for local network storage for my videos and documents but also as storage for the volume data used by the docker containers. Plus, power requirements would be far lower. To use a Pi 1 or 2 … In reply to You only have one PCIe lane… by Markocloud. As with most Pi projects, you’ll want to open a Terminal, either on the Pi itself … It looked like a race condition of some sort, and after some Googling, I found out that's exactly what it was! Great write up, was thinking about this as a project (at some stage), you've given me so much really useful information and many new tabs! The ideal solution is to use a cloud provider such as Google or Dropbox to back everything up. Rock band Make your own musical instruments with code blocks. To make sure mdadm automatically configures the RAID array on boot, persist the configuration into the /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf file: And to make sure the filesystem is mounted at boot, add the following line to the bottom of your /etc/fstab file: One other thing I had to do a number of times during my testing was delete and re-create the array, which is not too difficult: Then also make sure to remove any entries added to your /etc/fstab or /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf files, since those would cause failures during startup! But it's a good option if you just want to have external storage. Just - wow. At this point, we have four independent disks, each with one partition spanning the whole volume. In reply to Hi thank you for sharing… by Johan. Or it's power supply? So, to grant access to the current user, ‘pi’: You’ll be asked to choose a password (it doesn’t have to be the same as your Raspberry Pi password). All content copyright Jeff Geerling. …where ‘username’ is your choice of username. One question I do have is if a PCIe X1 riser card would work on this? Install the hard drives in the enclosures, … Specifically useful for Raspberry Pi 2+ and a nice alternative to untrustworthy RAID systems. Save 37% off the cover price with a subscription to The MagPi magazine. Thanks for sharing your work and good luck! Using Samba is one of the simplest ways to build a Raspberry Pi NAS as it is easy to set up and configure. I'm pretty sure this is also what I'm running into with my laptop usb drive raidz nas that's limited by the 1x pcie lanes to the pch. Posted If you have two USB disks installed and working, you should also see ‘sda’ and ‘sdb‘ (Storage Device A and Storage Device B). Now let’s make a directory and allow all users access: Tell Samba to share the directory on the network by editing the config file: Save (CTRL+X, followed by Y), then restart Samba: To give a user access to the shared files, we need to run a special command to set a Samba password. One thing you must have mentioned that a backup power, the files will be doomed if such thing happens. Next, make sure that the drive is mounted whenever you boot. I'm going to create a RAID 10 array for my own use—you can check out the associated video linked above for the reasons why I chose RAID 10 instead of something else. Raspberry Pi-powered quad NAS with Radxa SATA HAT Radxa has announced the ROCK Pi SATA HAT, a series of SATA expansion targeting at the NAS solution for Raspberry Pi 4 and ROCK Pi 4. Download Raspbian Buster Lite and burn it to a microSD card. So what is a NAS, anyway? First, install the software RAID manager, mdadm: Now instruct mdadm to create the RAID-1 array: Raspbian will now see both physical disks as a single device. To do this we use fdisk. It provides a certain level of data redundancy, but will not be of any help if you accidentally delete a file. Rotary drives give us lower cost and higher capacity than SSDs. New Raspberry Pi 4 USB 3.0 Personal Cloud With RAID Backup: Hello and welcome. Or it… by Jason Harrison. The files themselves should be available with appropriate security measures over desired protocols. Once done, the user ‘pi’ can access the Samba share from Windows, macOS, or other Raspberry Pi devices, with the ability to read and write files. In reply to How much ram does the… by oREDi. Now type ‘w’ (to write the changes to the disk). Finally, change your password and, under Network Options, change the Hostname (the NAS’s network name) if you wish. I think the Compute Module 4, with it's built-in Gigabit networking and ability to use one or more PCI Express cards, is the first Raspberry Pi that I would consider 'good' for running a reliable and performant NAS. I have seen the power supply 12V/2A you use for feeding 4 x Kingston SSD, but not the one for 4 x HDD. I have full directions for recompiling the kernel with SATA support on the Pi itself, too! This cloud will also employ a RAID … Using Linux's Multiple Device admin tool (mdadm), we can put these drives together in any common RAID arrangement. Win one of five of the latest version of Raspberry Pi! Since the day I received a pre-production Raspberry Pi Compute Module 4 and IO Board, I've been testing a variety of PCI Express cards with the Pi, and documenting everything I've learned. But putting slower hard drives into RAID can give better performance, so I next tested all four WD Green drives in RAID 0 and RAID 10: And, as you'd expect, RAID 0 basically pools all the drives' performance metrics together, to make for an array that finally competes with the tiny microSD card for 4K performance, while also besting the Kingston SSD for synchronous file copies. We decided on 1 terabyte of storage, meaning two 1TB external drives. ZFS is very stable and guarantees you won't lose a 'bit' of data before it tells the system it's done. (If you get an error that a partition already exists, use ‘d’ to delete it – this will lose any data on the disk!) This way I can keep the Raspberry Pi's environments relatively light and have an environment I can add onto as I need the additional power. I linked to those in my initial Pi Compute Module 4 Review post. The ROCK Pi SATA HATs come in 3 models: Sudden power cuts can spell disaster for Linux-based systems due to the way they handle files in memory. ... Configuring RAID 5. These file- and media-serving black boxes can punch a hole in your bank account, particularly the professional versions aimed at businesses. Purchasing & Delivery You may be liable for import duties, sales tax, or customs processing fees. To keep things fair, since it couldn't hold a candle to even a cheap SSD like the Kingston, I benchmarked it against my favorite microSD card for the Pi, the Samsung EVO+: While the hard drive does put through decent synchronous numbers (it has more bandwidth available over PCIe than the microSD card gets), it gets obliterated by the itsy-bitsy microSD card on random IO! We imaginatively changed ours to ‘nas’, so the network address is ‘nas.local’. Come with us and celebrate with this special edition of The MagPi magazine. ⇒ Characteristics of Linux RAID levels ⇒ Build your own Raspberry Pi NAS ⇒ How to Setup a Raspberry Pi Samba Server ⇒ Build a Raspberry Pi RAID NAS Server – Complete DIY Guide ⇒ Partitioning, Formatting, and Mounting a Hard Drive in Linux Using the Raspberry Pi as an always-on NAS box sounds like a wonderful use of the silent little device. Disappointed with the results I accepted the failure and moved to other projects. Today I'll show you how to build a rock-solid home/office NAS server using a Mini-ITX motherboard, a dedicated hardware RAID card, and enterprise class SAS hard drives, all in a Mini-ITX NAS case with an 8 drive hot-swap bay. In reply to No link for the RPI4? Should the Raspberry Pi NAS fail for some reason or we want to quickly copy information over a USB 3.0 connection instead of via the network, having NTFS-formatted disks makes it dead simple to take the portable USB drives we’re using on the NAS build and plug them right into one of the many Windows machines we use every day. In simpler terms, it’s a box on to which you dump all your movies, photos, music, and other stuff so you can get to it wherever and whenever. First, we’re using NTFS-formatted hard disks. I upgraded my Raspberry Pi 2 NAS to the latest and greatest Raspberry Pi 3B+ hoping to get the network performance boost promised by an excellent iperf benchmark. To provide a layer of protection, you’ll need to double the number of drives to make sure your data is safer. You can format and mount the new virtual drive: You should see one item: ‘lost+found’. Prerequisites for installing a NAS. I am not so experienced with pi, but why didn't you consider OMV ? Hi, Thoughts on which you’d prefer? Just add your Raspberry Pi 4 to this Kit and your NAS is complete and it really looks great! The … Thank you for sharing your benchmark and all the steps. You can polish off this project with an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). The most important decision you’ll make is how much storage you’ll need. Try three issues for just £5, then pay £25 every six issues. Prep your storage. In reply to Thank you for sharing your… by Gonzalo. RAID is not a backup system. Now to share some files on the network using the popular protocol, SMB/CIFS. Make it available anywhere in your home with your own Raspberry Pi network-attached storage, The MagPi magazine is 100 issues young. Happy birthday Make an online birthday card on a webpage. I’ve been wondering about using Pi for a Raid1 with 1 or 2 TB SSDs for storing high value data backups. Quit (CTRL+X, followed by Y), then run the following so the RAID array starts up correctly on boot: Reboot and you should have /mnt/raid1 ready to go. What about a power switch and display / indicator for status? Thanks for answering. I already have prepared a NAS with my raspi 4, and I was wondering what power supply are you using for feeding 4 x WD HDD. dmraid 10 is not exactly 1+0. Speaking of network traffic, the last test I did was to install and configure both Samba and NFS (see Samba and NFS installation guides in this issue), to test which one offered the best performance for network file copies: It looks like NFS holds the crown on the Pi, though if you use Windows or Android/iOS primarily, you might see slightly different results or have a harder time getting NFS going than Samba. Above all, it is important to present the necessary material for this … Using the Raspberry Pi 4, with portable USB drives configured in a Linux RAID configuration. Just keep pressing ENTER (accepting the defaults) until ‘Created a new partition’ appears. After switching to the appropriate keyboard language, it … I appreciate you a lot for doing this. The post mdadm: device or resource busy had the solution—disable udev when creating the volume, for example: You may also want to watch the progress and status of your RAID array while it is being initialized or at any given time, and there are two things you should monitor: And if all else fails, resort to Google :). The Raspberry Pi, on the other hand, is such a versatile little board that it can act as a cheap trial NAS that—once you grow out of it—can be repurposed for something else. As you can see, connected directly via SATA, the SSD can give noticeably better performance on all metrics, especially for small file random IO, which is important for many use cases. Could I send you some to try? (Raspberry Pi 4 is too hard to get at the moment, but I will see if I can get one soon :P ) Raspberry Pi 4 support will definitely be added soon, with its on board USB3.0 port and Gigabyte Ethernet, it is the best board to setup a Raspberry Pi NAS. SATA random IO speeds are way faster, so if you're using the Pi to serve up disk images for netboot, VMs, or even for small file sharing, it's going to be a lot faster even over a 1 Gbps port than the same drive through USB 3.0. Self-storage. Very thorough job. Hi thank you for sharing this valuable information. For example, when I was trying to format four HDDs the first time, I got: And the solution I found in this StackOverflow question was to run: I also ran into the message Device or resource busy when I tried formatting four SSDs, and it would always be a different device that was listed as the one being busy. A Raspberry Pi NAS is affordable and easy to set up, all you need is a Raspberry Pi and some digital storage. Well, I'm also testing some PCI multi-port switches with the Pi—follow that issue for progress.). So for each of my devices (sda through sdd), I ran fdisk to create one primary partition: There are ways you can script fdisk to apply a given layout to multiple drives at the same time, but with just four drives, it's quick enough to go into fdisk, then press n, then press 'enter' for each of the defaults, then w to write it, and q to quit. This battery backup safely keeps your Raspberry Pi and hub running in the event of a power cut. Samba is a re-implementation of the SMB (Server Message Block) networking protocol that allows Linux computers to seamlessly integrate into active directory environments. We'll then look at whether that improves performance for I/O intensive tasks such as pulling a Docker image down from the public registry. The setup is headless, meaning we access the RaspberryPi only via remote SSH controls. Got a lot of digital stuff? Utilities such as Rclone can sync entire directory structures onto many different providers’ storage. In my Raspberry Pi NAS, I currently have one powered 4TB HDD, one non-powered 4TB HDD and a 128GB flash drive mounted without issue. It can’t compete with Intel-based systems in terms of speed or features, but if you have some external USB disks lying around, it’s a very affordable way to not only serve your data, but protect it as well. Have you been able to test different SATA chipsets? If a drive does fail, your system will be in a ‘degraded’ state, meaning that data is at risk until the drive is replaced. Technically it's not required to partition before creating the array... but there are a couple small reasons it seems safer that way. The first card I tested after completing my initial review was the IO Crest 4-port SATA card pictured with my homegrown Pi NAS setup below: But it's been a long time testing, as I wanted to get a feel for how the Raspberry Pi handled a variety of storage situations, including single hard drives and SSD and RAID arrays built with mdadm. 2 × External USB drives (minimum), e.g. So more RAM would definitely help make for more consistent transfers, but I don't think that's the only bottleneck, as copies would still start showing slowdowns after only 1-2 GB sometimes, even after a fresh reboot. I covered that in the video here: — but basically it uses ~6W at idle (with drives on), and ~12W max under highest load writing files over the network. Run the following: If you are asked any questions, just select the default answer. If you’ve got a lot of files like photos, music, or movies, chances are they are sitting on a hard drive somewhere. Why not set up a DLNA streaming server or run multiple databases? This article first appeared in The MagPi 85 and was written by PJ Evans. Designing a Raspberry Pi NAS using external USB drives. For the more adventurous user, Docker is an excellent way of making your NAS perform multiple functions without getting into a configuration nightmare. By Lucy Hattersley, Build a Home Assistant: the light fantastic, Play with colour and mood, or go completely disco with Home Assistant's light controls. change password and display IP address. It seemed to work in both cases, though I did my actual benchmarks for the HDDs while they were connected through a 600W power supply (overkill, I know!). If you’ve enabled SSH, you’ve already got SFTP available; just connect using your favourite FTP client using /mnt/raid1/shared as the starting point. Visit our projects site for tons of fun, step-by-step project guides with Raspberry Pi HTML/CSS Python Scratch Blender. Connected through USB 3.0, a SATA SSD is no slouch, but if you want the best possible performance on the Pi, using direct NVMe or SATA SSD storage is the best option. This is a pretty awesome article, man. You’ll be asked a series of questions about sectors. With the Raspberry Pi up to date, we can go ahead and install the packages that we will be relying … Here are links (Amazon affiliate links—gotta pay the bills somehow!) You only have one PCIe lane to work with whether you have a regular rpi4 (the USB3 is attached to it) or you have an expansion card. Our NAS can now create file shares, the most basic of capabilities. I can imagine an enclosure... thanks for giving this idea some new strength. At this point in time, the software being used is beta – openmediavault 5. Since I have three disks, I’ll be using RAID 5 because it offers redundancy and more storage available than RAID 1. No keyboard, mouse or display are required to be connected to the Pi. fdisk will now exit. If the second drive fails, disaster. Getting access to those files and making sure they are protected from drive failure can be challenging without an expensive network-attached storage (NAS) solution. Many UPSes can communicate their status to your Raspberry Pi over USB, so a safe shutdown can be triggered. No link for the RPI4? Now only that user can access that directory. Did you find any solution to what you suspect is linux flushing to disk and starving the nic of io bandwidth, continuously tanking the network transfer speed? You can find a few SATA HATs for the Raspberry Pi 4 that support single SATA or mSATA connections, such as Geekworm’s $26 X825 or Renkforce’s $19 SATA Extension Board, but Radxa’s new line of SATA HATs for network attached storage (NAS) applications appear to be the first to support multiple SATA connections. Set this up and create a regular cron job to make sure your data survives. Tutorials on Linux, Raspberry Pi, Windows and Networking. I ran into a few different issues when formatting different sets of disks. For reliable power we added a powered USB 3.0 hub. That means it should protect against system failures that cause significant downtime, and make sure no data is lost as a result of those failures. Assemble And Format The Disks. If you want to create file shares that are private to individual users, just create their own directory on the RAID array: Again, replace username with the user you want. I'm looking for a new project and this is looking good. For the first solution, we will be using a software called Samba to build a NAS with Raspberry Pi. Really interesting article. Inside you’ll discover a 20-page feature celebrating 100 moments from Raspberry P…. Amazing work! For my board, I’m currently eying the JMB582 or JMB585 which are pci to 2 or 5 port SATA chips, respectively. Should a disk fail, your NAS keeps running and you don’t lose anything. Professional NAS software often offers additional protocols such as Apple AFS, FTP, and many others. However, setting it up as one used to be an involved process. I also wanted to measure thermal performance and energy efficiency, since the end goal is to build a compact Raspberry-Pi based NAS that is competitive with any other budget NAS on the market. Now, thanks to the improved throughput of Raspberry Pi 4 with USB 3.0 and Gigabit Ethernet, you can build a fully featured NAS for a fraction of the cost. In your benchmarks did you try to play with raid10 layout options (near, far, ...); I was always wondering how the impact performance for spinning HDD versus SSD. Next I wanted to benchmark a single WD Green 500GB hard drive. I’m currently working on designing a customized IO board for the CM4 for this exact purpose. Alternatively, you can create additional entries in smb.conf for multiple shares. Instead of using the RAID function on these boards, configure each drive in JBOD and use ZFS to create volumes. Don’t panic. If you have more drives, it will continue up the alphabet. Using iSCSI (as opposed to NFS or SMB) can be much more efficient. I bought this model because it is pretty average in terms of performance, but mostly because it was cheap to buy four of them! Next, we need to partition the drives so Raspbian can understand how to store data on them. By Rob Zwetsloot. RAID 10 backs off that performance a bit, but it's still respectable and offers a marked improvement over a single drive. It turns out that SATA chips are very difficult to get a hold of and JMicron is the only one that has been responsive. I want to replace my old NAS with a low-energy but powerful replacement. Give the system a few seconds to ‘see’ the disks, then enter the following: This command tells you about devices connected to the system. The first thing I wanted to test was whether a SATA drive—in this case, a Kingston SATA 3 SSD—would run faster connected directly through a SATA controller than it ran connected through a USB 3.0 controller and a UASP-enabled USB 3.0 to SATA enclosure. Top of page. For each of the drives that were recognized, if you want to use it in a RAID array (which I do), you should add a partition. In some of my testing, I noticed what looked like queueing of network packets as the Pi had to move network traffic to the RAID array disks, and I'm guessing the Pi's SoC is just not built to pump through hundreds of MB of traffic indefinitely.